Name That Cytogenetic Abnormality

A 36-year-old male presents with recurrent epistaxis and fatigue of several days’ duration. Physical examination reveals numerous ecchymoses scattered over his limbs and trunk. A CBC shows the following:

  • Hgb 9.2 g/dL (normal = 13.5 – 17.5 g/dL)
  • WBC 31×109/L (normal = 4.5 – 11 x 109/L)
  • Platelet count 23 x 109/L (normal = 150 – 450 x 109/L)

Review of the blood smear shows numerous hypergranulated immature myeloid cells. Rare cells like the cell below are also present.

auer-rod

What cytogenetic abnormality is most likely present in the abnormal cells?

  1. inv(16)
  2. t(8;21)
  3. t(14;18)
  4. t(15;17)
  5. t(11;14)

The answer is D, t(15;17). This is a case of acute promyelocytic leukemia (or AML-M3 in the old FAB classification). The key to the diagnosis is the cell in the image above, which is an immature myeloid cell containing innumerable Auer rods. This cell is called a faggot cell because the Auer rods resemble a bundle of sticks (or faggot). Faggot cells are specific for acute promyelocytic leukemia; they are not seen in any other hematologic malignancy.

Other clues to the diagnosis which are not entirely specific for acute promyelocytic leukemia include the anemia and thrombocytopenia (which point towards bone marrow failure), and the leukocytosis (which presumably is comprised mostly of the hypergranular myeloid cells noted on the blood smear).

Acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) is a type of acute leukemia in which the predominant cell type is the promyelocyte. The malignant promyelocytes in APL have a distinctive appearance which is different from that of normal promyelocytes. In most cases, the malignant promyelocytes in APL contain innumerable small azurophilic granules – but in rare cases, the promyelocytes are hypogranular.

The characteristic morphologic finding in APL is the faggot cell, as shown above. When you see faggot cells, you can make the diagnosis of APL based on morphology alone, without waiting for molecular or cytogenetic studies (which will show the characteristic t(15;17) of APL – but which take some time to perform).

Making an immediate, morphologic diagnosis is critical in cases of APL, because patients with APL cannot be given routine acute myeloid leukemia chemotherapeutic agents. The granules in the malignant promyelocytes contain substances which quickly activate the coagulation system. Traditional chemotherapeutic agents cause cell lysis and release of the procoagulant substances, which puts the patient at high risk for disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC).

Patients with APL are given a drug called all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) that overcomes the maturation block caused by the translocation between chromosomes 15 and 17. Following ATRA therapy, the malignant promyelocytes mature into segmented neutrophils, and the risk of DIC diminishes.

The other cytogenetic translocations in this question are seen in different disorders: inv(16) is seen in some cases of acute myelomonocytic leukemia (AML-M4); t(8;21) is seen in some cases of acute myeloblastic leukemia with maturation (AML-M2); t(14;18) is seen in follicular lymphoma; and t(11;14) is seen in mantle cell lymphoma.

Krafts

-Kristine Krafts, MD, is an Assistant Professor of Pathology at the University of Minnesota School of Medicine and School of Dentistry and the founder of the educational website Pathology Student.

Heparin-Induced Thrombocytopenia

The fine folks over at The Poison Review discuss a paper about heparin-induced thrombocytopenia that is relevant to your interests. The paper appeared in the journal Clinical Toxicology and is geared toward that audience, but even so it serves as a nice refresher for technologists working in coagulation and hematology.

The Importance of Manual Urine Microscopy

Research presented today at the National Kidney Foundation spring clinical meeting indicates that manual microscopy surpasses automated analyzers when assessing kidney injury. The abstract is titled “Manual Microscopy: Not a Lost Art” and says, in part: “In this study, we examined if a significant difference exists between the reported ranges of granular and muddy brown casts using manual microscopy as compared to an automated urine analyzer in an acute kidney injury cohort.”

According to one of the abstract’s authors, Dr. Sharda, “What our research has been able to show so far is that the automated system under reported the value of granular casts in our patient cohort of acute kidney injury. The automated system still has utility as a screening test, but manual microscopy should be done in all cases of abnormal kidney function, as accurate quantification of casts could have some prognostic benefit to patients.”

The poster is available online. The authors are currently writing a paper on their research; their contact information is here.

On the Lab Medicine Website

In case you’ve missed it, here is the table of contents for the current issue of Lab Medicine. New articles are uploaded regularly, so be sure to check back often.

Theoretical knowledge helps troubleshoot wonky results, but unfortunately that knowledge is easy to forget if it’s not used every day. If you’ve worked the chemistry bench long enough to have forgotten some of theory behind the analytes, check out this series of articles to refresh your memory.

In the latest edition of our podcast series, Dr. Alex Thurman walks listeners through diagnosing a new acute leukemia in the middle of the night.

How Do We Monitor the New Anticoagulants-Podcast

As may or may not be aware, Lab Medicine has a podcast series geared toward laboratory professionals and pathologists. In a recent installment, Dr. Geoffrey Wool discusses the laboratory’s role in monitoring the new anticoagulants. Click this link to listen.

 

 

Lab Product Friday-UniCel DxH800

The common maxim when buying laboratory equipment is “Fast, accurate, or cheap; pick two.” The perfect analyzer would have all three qualities, but as the saying suggests, it’s hard to find those instruments. Enter Beckman Coulter. Their website suggests the UniCel DxH800 is designed to meet these demands by improving productivity, decreasing turnaround time and reducing overall cost.

Recently Lab Medicine published a paper evaluating the performance of Beckman Coulter’s Unicel DxH800. The authors of the paper found the instrument to be accurate and efficient. They also commented that for larger facilities, this analyzer could improve productivity and turnaround times when compared to the older model (LH 750). Notably, the authors don’t mention cost, quality control, or maintenance concerns.

Does your laboratory have the DxH800? Is the maintenance easy to perform? Has this analyzer improved turnaround times in your lab? Let us know in the comments.