A 33 year old man of Japanese ethnicity presents with a 2 month history of a mass behind the right ear. Examination reveals a non-tender local with no other local or generalized adenopathy or hepatosplenomegaly. Laboratory investigations reveal an elevated ESR, serum IgE and peripheral blood eosinophilia. The lesion is excised.
H&E stained sections demonstrate a follicular hyperplasia. The germinal centers demonstrate polarity and tingible body macrophages (A). Focally, follicular centers reveal eosinophilic microabscesses (B, C). Immunohistochemical analysis with an IgE stain reveals deposition in germinal centers (D). A diagnosis of Kimura disease is rendered.
Kimura disease, also known as eosinophilic lymphoid follicular hyperplasia is a rare, chronic inflammatory disorder of unknown etiology. While an infectious etiology has been suggested, no pathogen has been identified to be causal, to date. Historically, Kimura disease was considered to be the same as Angiolymphoid Hyperplasia with Eosinophilia (ALHE); however, these entities are not the same.
Generally occurring in Asian males, Kimura disease is most common in the 3rd decade of life and in a head/neck site. It presents as painless, slow-growing adenopathy. An association with nephrotic syndrome has been reported. Peripheral blood eosinophilia, elevated ESR, and serum IgE are common findings. Histologically, nodes reveal hyperplastic follicles with well-formed germinal centers and mantle zones with deposition of IgE and eosinophilic microabscesses, as seen in this case. Perinodal soft tissue may be involved. Necrosis may be present, but is not extensive. Cytologically, FNA material may reveal polymorphous cell population with many eosinophils.
Prognosis is indolent; however, most cases recur after excision and radiation therapy usually yields best outcome.
- Zhou P. et al. Kimura disease. Dermatol Online J. 2017 Oct 15;23(10).
- García Carretero R et al. Eosinophilia and multiple lymphadenopathy: Kimura disease, a rare, but benign condition. BMJ Case Rep. 2016 Aug 31;2016. pii: bcr2015214211. doi: 10.1136/bcr-2015-214211.
- Sun QF et al. Kimura disease: review of the literature. Intern Med J 2008;38:668–72.
–Kamran M. Mirza, MD, PhD, MLS(ASCP)CM is an Assistant Professor of Pathology and Medical Education at Loyola University Health System. A past top 5 honoree in ASCP’s Forty Under 40, Dr. Mirza was named to The Pathologist’s Power List of 2018. Follow him on twitter @kmirza