Researchers at the University of Oxford are researching antibiotic resistance in Tuberculosis, and they want help reading MIC plates. You don’t have to fly to England, though–you can do it online! Visit the project Bash the Bug on Zooniverse to learn more, view a short tutorial, and get started.
You can read more about the Bash the Bug project here.
Did you know? March 24th was World TB Day. The date commemorates the day in 1882 when Dr. Robert Koch announced he’d discovered the cause of Tuberculosis.
Did you know? Every day there are 24,000 new cases of TB diagnosed. This means more than 2 billion people are infected with TB and 1.5 million people die each year (according to the Stop TB Partnership).
Did you know? The number of people diagnosed with multi-drug resistant TB (MDR-TB) has tripled since 2009 (according to the WHO TB fact sheet).
The burden of TB is highest in resource limited countries and in places where the incidence of HIV is highest. TB is the most common opportunistic infection for individuals with HIV/AIDS and is the most common cause of death in HIV/AIDS patients. In resource limited countries diagnosis and consistent treatment is a challenge. Lack of laboratory resources to use for diagnosis means TB diagnosis are often made based on empirical signs and symptoms.
Once a patient is diagnosed (either clinically or based upon a confirmed laboratory test) given the strenuous treatment, it can be difficult to keep people on a consistent treatment plan. Most treatment lasts six to nine months. In rural settings where access to drugs is limited this can be a prohibitive amount of time. Not only does the cost of the drug add up but the opportunity cost involved in missing work to travel to get the drug, the cost of the travel, and the physical strain of the travel all hamper a patient’s ability and commitment to sticking with the full course. This can and has led to increased prevalence of MDR-TB.
Unfortunately, the ways to prevent the spread of MDR-TB (quick, accurate diagnosis; taking medication exactly as prescribed; avoiding exposure) aren’t easy in resource limited areas. Basic cell phone technology may be one tool helping to make a difference, however. Some researchers and health care providers are experimenting with sending text message reminders to other health care providers and/or patients to take their medication. Multiple studies are currently underway to determine whether this method of communication has been useful in increasing drug regimen adherence and improving the TB cure rate. If this can solve one of the challenges related to TB, it will be a big step in the right direction.
-Marie Levy spent over five years working at American Society for Clinical Pathology in the Global Outreach department.
Recently officials determined the cause of death of a young mother in Las Vegas: tuberculosis. The family Mycobacteriaceae contains several pathogenic species, including the most famous, M. tuberculosis. While none of the articles I read mention the species, they do mention the patient consumed unpasteurized dairy products, which leads me to believe she died of the zoonotic organism M. bovis.
Since these organisms are recovered infrequently, clinical microbiologists should brush up on the basics of these organisms on occasion. The CDC has some general information on Tuberculosis; the illustrious contributors at Wikipedia go a bit more in depth. The best sources for information are reference textbooks such as the Manual of Microbiology. It’s important to remember that mycobacteria can infect any region of the body, not just the respiratory system, so it’s important to keep an open mind. It’s also helpful to know that some species are rapid growers and may present on blood agar in a routine culture.