Decoding Generations

When I started my professional life, nobody talked about generations. Experience was everything: none, little, some, significant or expert. Now, conversations about generational similarities and differences are integrated into professional and personal life.

There are currently five generations at work today: Traditionalists, Baby Boomers, Generation X, Generation Y/Millennials, and Generation Z.

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Understanding generations allows people to adapt their behavior according to certain preferences.Take, for example, communication styles. When communicating with someone from the Baby Boomers generation, picking up the phone might be appreciated, while sending an email to a Generation X is the best way to communicate with them. Always keep in mind, however, that generational preferences are generalizations, and knowledge about them does not substitute understanding each employee and colleague on an individual basis.

Another example of the differences between the generations is how they define their aspirations. Traditionalists value home ownership, Baby Boomers want job security, Generation X aspires to achieve work-life balance, Generation Y prefers flexibility and freedom, and Generation Z values security and stability. Understanding each generation’s aspirations allows leaders to tailor their communication style and job aspects to each individual.

 

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-Lotte Mulder earned her Master’s of Education from the Harvard Graduate School of Education in 2013, where she focused on Leadership and Group Development. She’s currently working toward a PhD in Organizational Leadership. At ASCP, Lotte designs and facilitates the ASCP Leadership Institute, an online leadership certificate program. She has also built ASCP’s first patient ambassador program, called Patient Champions, which leverages patient stories as they relate to the value of the lab.

 


 

As a former member of the ASCP Resident Council, I volunteered for the opportunity to serve as a beta tester for the ASCP Leadership Institute. To obtain certification, I completed 10 modules which often included a pre-course reading or interactive video assignment along with a pre-recorded webinar, post-test, and post-course evaluation. Some of these courses are also available in-person at live meetings and can include personal coaching live, online, or by phone.

A cursory internet search will reveal a plethora of written and video resources available on the topic of leadership. Additionally, many of us have participated in evaluations or trainings that sought to not only define our personal leadership skills/style but also help us to gain essential self-awareness and skills to better lead or be part of a team. Despite such experiences and even though I’ve held many leadership positions over the years, I still find it difficult to reconcile what it means to be a leader, both in terms of expectations that I hold for myself and those that others hold of me and how to build these expectations to realize a shared objective.

I was intrigued by the title of the module “DeCoding Generations”. This module was especially salient for me since I was a non-traditional medical student after initially studying to be a neuroscientist. I’ve generally been older than my fellow trainees and younger than the majority of my teachers. This generational gap has also been similarly evident within the teams I’ve participated in since I matriculated into medical school.

This module explored the core values of the following “generations”: traditionalists, baby boomers, gen X, gen Y (also known as millennials), and gen Z to help the learner understand what drives members of each group. The course then further defined the aspirations, attitudes toward technology and their careers, and preferred communication media and preferences of members of each generation. This was all with the goal of facilitating interactions, especially as a leader, with members from each generation. For instance, different generations prefer and respond better to different types of communication: in-person, phone, email, video conferencing, text, or a combination of these modalities. That’s where the “decoding” part of the module comes in. As leaders, we need to recognize how best to interact with each team member to acknowledge their core values and foster the most harmonious working relationships while working toward a shared goal.

I’m a very visual learner and intuitive person but not the most eloquent or at ease with verbal communication despite friends remarking that I’m a “social butterfly”. This module helped me evaluate ways to adapt my communication style especially when interacting with others in the two most numerous generations in the workforce: millennials (42%) and baby boomers (29%). I fall in the middle as a gen X’er (23%) and have often found myself confounded by the attitudes and behaviors of millennials and this module helped me to understand their perspective and preferred modes of communication. But what I learned most was to look at not only the differences that impair our interactions but also the similarities we share that can be used to prevent or resolve conflicts and to encourage team creativity and solidarity.

 

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-Betty Chung, DO, MPH, MA recieved a BA from The University of Chicago, MA from Boston University School of Medicine, DO from UMDNJ-School of Osteopathic Medicine (now Rowan-SOM), and MPH from Columbia University and a decade of experience in basic science research. She completed her AP/CP residency at the University of Illinois at Chicago (PGY1-2) and Rutgers Robert Wood Johnson Medical School (PGY3-4). Her current interests lie in graduate medical education, quality improvement, hematopathology, and molecular genetic pathology.

Components of an Online CLS Course

When interviewing prospective candidates for Mayo Clinic’s program in medical laboratory science (MLS), I provide an overview of one of our blended courses and compare and contrast it to one of our more traditionally taught (lecture-based) courses. This gives me the opportunity to emphasize expectations and recommended study habits based on some of the “best practices” we’ve learned from our students.

Our online MLS courses include the following components:

  • Syllabus
  • Weekly calendar
  • Online lessons
  • Homework assignments
  • Discussion boards
  • Study guides
  • Self-assessments
  • Practice exams
  • Resources (links to related online resources)

Our students are expected to review each online lesson before coming to class as preparation for their laboratory session. Since we teach “immersion style” courses, two at a time (where a typical four-credit course is condensed into six weeks), we recommended that our students plan to study a minimum of 4 to 6 hours per day.

Each lesson is presented in a written format, following instructional-design recommendations for online learning that includes “chunking” of the content—using bullets to convey information instead of complete sentences (where appropriate) along with concisely written text that emphasizes “key concepts,” graphics, and images. The lessons are straightforward and present basic knowledge, and the higher learning concepts are integrated into the discussion-board assignments.

Each online course is easy to navigate and is presented in such a way that it’s intuitive and requires little “outside” instruction. All the courses in our program follow the same format, so once the students become familiar with navigation of their first course, they do not have to re-learn the lesson format each time they start a new course.

We provide a study guide of objectives for every written examination. Our students are encouraged to create a learning document from the study guide that they can use for review over the duration of the program and to prepare for their national certification examination in medical laboratory science offered through the American Society for Clinical Pathology.

To give you an idea of how our online courses are designed in Blackboard Learn, I have taken a series of screen shots demonstrating the layout of a course and lesson plan (shown below).

When our students log into Blackboard Learn and open a course, they land on the home page, which includes a navigation menu and links to the syllabus and introductory discussion boards. The home page discussion boards include “student introductions,” “faculty expectations,” “updates and handouts,” “ask your instructor or classmates,” and an “MLS Café” (for social interactions).

1_Welcome

From the menu, our students can open the course content. The first page opens to the weekly course calendars. At a glance, our students can examine the week’s activities.

2_Weekly Calendar

Clicking the “Course Week” link opens the week’s lesson plans.

3_Lesson Plan_Week 2 List of Lessons

Each lesson is formatted the same way and begins with a brief description, overview (goals or learning objectives), author, and references.

4_Lesson Plan_Overview

The second page is a table of “steps to completion” so that our students know exactly what is required of them.

5_Lesson Plan_ Steps to Completion

The lesson is presented in a written format. A table of contents allows the students to navigate the pages of the lesson.

 

 

6_Lesson Plan Introduction

The lesson concludes with a self-assessment. The self-assessment is embedded in the lesson, includes feedback loops, and is also linked to the home page menu. The students are able to take the self-assessments as often as they’d like, and the course grade book is set to record their highest score.

7_Example of Self Assessment

In this course, there is a weekly discussion board. The students are directed to work as a team in assigned groups to answer the questions in the discussion. Credit for this discussion is based on participation in the thread and “substantive” contributions to the dialogue. Students are encouraged to build upon one another’s commentary, generating comprehensive answers to the questions. Each group member must contribute at least two to three substantive answers to receive credit for the assignment. One group member is designated to post a summary of the discussion on behalf of the group.

8_Example of Discussion Board

There are 15 didactic courses in our MLS curriculum. All of our courses have an online component with approximately one-third of the courses applying the “reverse-lecture-homework” paradigm, one-third are lecture based (traditional), and one-third are a combination of both.

This variation in presentation of content provides our students a mixed learning experience, and the online format allows for us to map everything out for them. Additionally, the curricular model itself lends to the formation of study groups, which in turn helps our students build upon their teamwork and communication skills.

Since our program was instituted 10 years ago, we have seen excellent outcomes, with 100% graduation rates, 100% employment of our graduates, and 96% first-time pass rates on the national certification examination (based on a three-year average). Notably, the breakdown of the certification results by category demonstrates that overall student performance in content areas of the curricula that apply the reverse-lecture-homework paradigm are, on average, higher than those categories following a traditional course format (i.e, lecture-based).

 

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-Susan M. Lehman, MA, MT(ASCP)SM graduated from the University of Wisconsin-Madison in 1983 with a BS in medical technology. She is program director for the Medical Laboratory Science Program and course director for Clinical Microbiology I and II; her areas of interest include distance education and education methodology.

 

A Chemical Conundrum

In 1983, OSHA established its first version of the Hazard Communication standard. These regulations were made law in response to a lack of hazard information given to over 30 million United States employees working with chemicals. OSHA estimates that 650,000 chemicals are used in over three million work places across the country. Recognizing that the work performed in laboratories is unique—relatively small quantities of hazardous chemicals are used on a non-production basis—OSHA promulgated the Chemical Hygiene standard (more simply known as the Laboratory standard) in 1990.

The Chemical Hygiene standard regulations supersede HazCom standard regulations in the laboratory setting. However, there are still several HazCom rules that affect labs such as those involving hazard determination, chemical labeling, and Safety Data Sheets. The Chemical Hygiene standard brings another layer of exposure protection to the lab employee through the required establishment of a series of chemical safe work practices. Understanding how both sets of laboratory regulations work together is important in creating an overall lab chemical management program.

The regulations for creating a chemical inventory are expressed in the HazCom standard. OSHA requires a list of hazardous chemicals in every work place where they are manufactured, stored, or used. This inventory can be a useful tool for many reasons. Use the list to document the required chemical risk analysis. Review the chemicals in the lab for their hazards, and indicate on the inventory list any applicable hazard warnings such as the signal word and pictograms. CAP requires that you determine which chemicals in the lab are carcinogenic or reproductively and acutely toxic. Once that analysis is complete, it can also be documented on the inventory list. Record average volumes of the chemicals stored in the lab as well. This information may be helpful in a fire situation so that the fire department or other rescue workers will be aware of what they may encounter.

Laboratories must designate a Chemical Hygiene Officer, a point person who is qualified and responsible for providing technical guidance for the implementation and operation of the entire lab chemical management program. The Lab Standard even mentions the establishment of a Chemical Hygiene Committee if the lab or chemical program is larger. Details of this lab chemical safety structure should be spelled out in the lab’s required Chemical Hygiene Plan.

If you read the actual Chemical Hygiene Standard on OSHA’s web site, you can see it is not very long (unlike the HazCom standard or others). Because of the volume of chemicals used in labs, the standard’s main focus is protecting employees from those chemicals via written procedures, physical barriers (such as PPE and engineering controls), and health monitoring. A model Chemical Hygiene Plan must include exposure control methods, a chemical fume hood maintenance process, a detailed training program, and medical consultation and follow-up when chemical exposure limits are exceeded. Appendix A of the standard (called National Research Council Recommendations Concerning Chemical Hygiene in Laboratories) was created to assist laboratories with the development of a complete and compliant Chemical Hygiene Plan.

A third set of OSHA regulations that affects labs and chemical safety is the Formaldehyde standard. The exposure monitoring section gives instructions on how to perform vapor monitoring for this carcinogenic chemical. The laboratory has an option to monitor each employee individually, or it may set up a representative sampling strategy and measure exposures within each job classification and for each work shift. The purpose of this strategy is to properly characterize the exposure of every employee without having to monitor each one. Simply stated, that means if Jane and John perform the same duties and are equally exposed to formaldehyde in their work day or for a specific task, you may monitor only Jane’s exposure and share the results with both employees. That said, the CAP standard on the Anatomic Pathology inspection checklist states that each new employee should have formaldehyde vapor monitors performed. While it references the OSHA formaldehyde regulations, the standard fails to include OSHA’s wording about representative monitoring. That can be an issue if a CAP inspector follows strict adherence to those standards and does not subscribe to OSHA’s intent. Clearly representative vapor monitors make sense and are safe, but you may have to challenge the case with certain inspectors.

Chemical management in the laboratory can certainly seem daunting, and there are many regulations (federal and otherwise) that affect how the lab program may be run. The basic safety strategies exist for the purposes of protecting the employee from chemical exposure, but so many details are involved with the process. Proper storage of flammables and corrosives, labeling, and waste handling are just some of the topics not even touched upon in this article, but they also must be considered for safety purposes. If operating the chemical management program is your duty, be sure to understand the regulations, and build a team of staff who will work together to ensure safe chemical processes in the laboratory.

 

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Dan Scungio, MT(ASCP), SLS, CQA (ASQ) has over 25 years experience as a certified medical technologist. Today he is the Laboratory Safety Officer for Sentara Healthcare, a system of seven hospitals and over 20 laboratories and draw sites in the Tidewater area of Virginia. He is also known as Dan the Lab Safety Man, a lab safety consultant, educator, and trainer.

Team Dynamics

Teams are one of the most discussed work units. We throw “teamwork” and “team ethic” around during job interviews and performance reviews. When we apply for jobs, we highlight our teamwork capabilities on our resumes. Teams are indeed essential to productive work environments because they are the vital learning units in an organization. In other words, when teams learn, the entire organization learns.

But what constitutes a team exactly? Simply put, teams are a group of two or more people that have a shared goal. Not only that, they are committed to the team process and use team language (“we” instead of “I”) when discussing accomplishments and failures. Teams also focus on learning, whether that learning comes from outside information, success, or failure. Finally, teams possess a strong sense of commitment and accountability.

Teams that consistently perform above expectations are called high-performance teams. Everyone wants to be a part of a high-performance team, but how do they happen? These teams consistently have one trait in common: experiencing and working through conflict. Conflict is one of THE best things that can happen to a team, because when handled and resolved well, teams learn, grow, and function better as a unit.

Each person has different preferences for their role on a team. Everyone gravitates toward one these five team roles: Creator, Advancer, Refiner, Executor, and Flexer. The Creator focuses on generating ideas; the Advancer communicates the ideas; the Refiner challenges ideas; the Executor implements the ideas; and the Flexer assumes any of the other four roles based on the needs of the team. High-performing teams have members who are in their preferred role where they can excel and are sustained because those roles give them energy. It is our job as leaders to find jobs, tasks, and team roles where others can flourish. Without energized people, leaders will not be able to create high-performing teams or high-performing organizations.

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-Lotte Mulder earned her Master’s of Education from the Harvard Graduate School of Education in 2013, where she focused on Leadership and Group Development. She’s currently working toward a PhD in Organizational Leadership. At ASCP, Lotte designs and facilitates the ASCP Leadership Institute, an online leadership certificate program. She has also built ASCP’s first patient ambassador program, called Patient Champions, which leverages patient stories as they relate to the value of the lab.


 

The team dynamics module gave me a great insight into my tendencies and an understanding on effectively getting the best out of teams.

When I received my assessment results, I learned I am an “advancer.” I tend to focus on execution and I pay attention to team interactions. One weakness of this profile, though, is how it potentially interacts with creators and refiners. If one is unaware of the valuable differences in prospective creators and refiners bring to the table, an advancer may get frustrated working with them in a team.

I came to realize I should be sure to include a refiner on the team, since having only executors or advancers could mean bypassing the analysis piece. I also gained new prospective on how I perceive creators. While in the past I may have discounted them as scattered or unrealistic, I learned this stems from the fact I like concrete ideas. Embracing innovation is essential to advancement and this is where creators excel.

The sections about communication and team roles were enlightening. How creators can easily get bored with discussions that are too concrete, and how executors are uninterested in theoretical discussions. On the flip side of things, creators need to partner with advancers, refiners and executors to bring about innovation. Advancers rely on refiners and refiners can benefit from the enthusiasm and networking of the advancers. I use these important concepts now in meetings and when I try to put teams together for a given project.

Although this may come with time, leadership and team member selection are paramount to foster the trust and respect and to facilitate free expression of ideas and sharing of information.

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-Laila Osama Abdel Wareth, MBBCh, FCAP, MRCPC, EMHCA is the Chief of Clinical Pathology for the Pathology & Laboratory Medicine Institute at the Cleveland Clinic Abu Dhabi in the United Arab Emirates.

 

 

Bringing it Home

A recent report from the Centers for Disease Control (CDC) found that twenty-four laboratory workers were infected with a strain of Salmonella typhimurium, an enteric pathogen. The infections were reported in sixteen states across the country. Of those infected, six were hospitalized with symptoms such as diarrhea, fever, and severe abdominal cramps. Luckily, there were no deaths reported. These infections occurred in various teaching and clinical laboratories. The worst part? This could have been avoided.

When interviewed, some of those who became ill said they remembered specific exposure events. Many others who were unsure of how they became exposed described unsafe behaviors in the laboratory. Those victims admitted to working in the lab setting without lab coats or gloves, and many reported not washing their hands before leaving the department.

If you’re a laboratory leader, you very likely work during the day shift. Hopefully, when management is on site, staff is compliant with safety. If not, you may need to examine your safety program and leadership style. Do you enforce safety regulations in the lab? Do you lead by example? Do you don PPE when you pick up the phone or use a computer in the lab?

If safety seems to be good during the day, you may want to make a visit during the off-shifts. Depending on the level of safety culture, there may be anything happening from solid safe practices to open eating and drinking in the department. I know that was the norm in many labs 25 years ago, but those unsafe practices and safety violations should now be ancient history. Unfortunately, that is not the case, and that is one reason we have bacterial infection outbreaks in our laboratories.

An experienced lab auditor will tell you it is not difficult to assess the lab safety culture in a department, even on inspection day. I once entered a lab as part of an accreditation inspection team, and I watched as the lab staff struggled to find gloves. Even though they knew the inspection was imminent, they could not hide the fact that glove use was not the norm for them in that lab. A complete lab safety audit can reveal a number of inappropriate practices such as improper PPE use, gum chewing, cell phone use, and many others.

The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) has educated workers for years about hazard and exposure control. The “Hierarchy of Controls” is an excellent model to use in the laboratory setting, although certain facts about it may be surprising. The first and best two controls to remove hazards are elimination and substitution. Of course, these are not always possible in the lab setting. While there are substitutes for hazardous chemicals, the inherently dangerous specimens that are handled cannot be replaced or removed.

Engineering controls create physical barriers between the hazard and the employee. Biological Safety Cabinets (BSCs) and Chemical Fume Hoods are powerful engineering controls. Administrative and Work Practice controls are the safety policies and actual practices that help prevent infection. Written safety procedures are designed to change the way people work, and standard work practices include not eating or drinking in the lab setting and practicing hand hygiene when necessary.

The final control for infection prevention is Personal Protective Equipment (PPE). In the hierarchy, PPE is considered the last resort for staff protection. Since the lab hazard cannot be eliminated, and since humans commit errors with procedures, that final method of protection must be utilized. Lab coats, gloves and face protection need to be used at all times when working in the laboratory. Without it, the worker is at great risk for exposure- and that is what happened in the labs where the Salmonella infections occurred. Each of the controls that should be in effect in the lab were bypassed, and there were consequences.

It is always better to read about incidents that occur in other laboratories rather than have to report them about your own. When I hear of such stories, I always look at my own labs to see if such an event could occur there. What opportunities exist in my lab safety program? What about yours? Be sure to learn from these unfortunate events and keep your own staff safe.

The personal (and probably painful) part of the infection outbreak was that these laboratory workers were infected on the job, and then they brought it home. The CDC report says nothing about infections being spread to family members or friends, but it certainly could have happened. If there are weaknesses in your lab safety program, what could your staff be bringing home? What infections or diseases could be spread because of unsafe work practices? Now is the time to take the lead for your safety program before such an event can occur. Bring safety home for your staff. Teach them and lead them so that the unsafe practices of the past turn into practices that keep everyone healthy into the future.

 

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Dan Scungio, MT(ASCP), SLS, CQA (ASQ) has over 25 years experience as a certified medical technologist. Today he is the Laboratory Safety Officer for Sentara Healthcare, a system of seven hospitals and over 20 laboratories and draw sites in the Tidewater area of Virginia. He is also known as Dan the Lab Safety Man, a lab safety consultant, educator, and trainer.

Guest Post: Drone Transport of Specimens

On a hot afternoon in late September 2016 the Johns Hopkins Medical Drones team drove to a flight field in the Arizona desert with 40 vacutainer tubes filled with human blood obtained from volunteers. The individually wrapped tubes sat in two custom-designed white plastic cooler boxes which had wires coming out of one end, ventilation holes at the other, and ran off the drone’s battery power. We carefully placed one of the boxes on the drone, stood back, and flew the samples around for 260 kilometers in what seemed like an unending series of concentric circles. Great. But why would doctors be involved in this exercise?

For the last 3 years, the Johns Hopkins medical drones team has examined the stability of human samples transported via drone. Our approach has been similar for each study. Get two sets of samples, fly one on the drone, then take both sample sets back to laboratory for analysis to see if there are any changes. However, until this study in Arizona we had only flown these samples up to about 40km, in mild weather, and for up to 40 minutes at a time. A request to set up a drone network in a flood-prone area of a country in Southwestern Africa made us realize that we needed to repeat the stability tests in warmer weather and for longer flights. This drone network would serve clinics that were up to 50 km away from each other, therefore requiring round-trips of at least 100km. Once we received this request it became clear pretty quickly that our previous tests flying for to 40km were not good enough for an aircraft that would have to fly in a hot environment between several clinics that were each 50km away from each other.

After the 3-hour 260km flight, we took both sets of samples back to the Mayo Clinic laboratories in Scottsdale, Arizona and performed 19 different tests on the samples. Each pair of samples was compared to check for differences between the flown and not-flown sample sets. Although results from sample pairs were similar for 17 of the 19 tests, small differences were seen in Glucose and Potassium, which do also vary in other transport methods. We suspect the differences seen in this test arose because the not-flown samples were not as carefully temperature controlled as the flown samples in the temperature-controlled chamber. This study (which is the longest flight of human samples on a drone to date) shows that drones can be used for blood samples even for long flights in hot conditions. However, the temperature and other environmental variables must be well-controlled to keep the blood stable.

 

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-Dr. Timothy Amukele is an Assistant professor in the Department of Pathology at the Johns Hopkins School of Medicine and the Director of Clinical Laboratories at Johns Hopkins Bayview Hospital. He is also the Medical Director of two international research laboratories in Uganda and Malawi. He has pioneered the use of unmanned aerial systems (colloquially known as drones) to move clinical laboratory samples.

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-Jeff Street is an unmanned systems engineer and pilot at the Johns Hopkins School of Medicine with more than 10 years of experience in the development of new and innovative vehicles. He is leading the Johns Hopkins aircraft development efforts for a wide range of medical cargo applications.

 

 

 

Here’s to Fresh STARTs: Sustainable Transitions And Reachable Targets

From the title, you might be able to tell that I’ve been busy on Lab Management University (LMU). Going through the online modules and lessons in the LMU certificate program I mentioned this past May, I’ve been able to hone several skills in interpersonal communication, resource management, and project leadership. (A worthwhile investment through ASCP which I highly recommend!) Another thing that’s kept me quite busy over the last two years has been Zika-virus and mosquito-related public health initiatives both inside and outside the laboratory. In a recent blog post, I discussed the correlation between measuring success in projects like these just as one would with common lab-centric goals. And, as a conclusion to that hard work, this will be my last directly-related Zika/public health post. Transitioning to the second half of medical school, I’ll be leaving behind a true grassroots project that not only reached countless people but has the promise to be sustainable after my departure from the island of Sint Maarten back to the states.

As with many times in life, I would say fresh starts are a welcome chance to reflect and grow upon things you might have learned or goals you might be closer to finishing. What has been made clear to me in my time working through classrooms, cases, exams, and projects is that the “jargon” we use as laboratorians is definitely worth its weight. It isn’t full of hollow charges for metrics and goals; it’s about real data and real solutions. Having the ability to apply my prior experiences in laboratory medicine throughout medical school—both inside and outside the classroom—has been an invaluable benefit. The general principles that guided my last blog post reflected simple goals (i.e. turnaround time compared with public health metrics) which utilize fundamental models of data collection, adjustment, and success. The essential model I described a few months ago is now a mainstay of a project that will continue to improve public health statistics slowly as time goes on.

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The model as it stands now consists of clear steps to identify problems which require interventions, highlight gaps in current practice, data collection from literature exists currently, collaboration with partners in a community of trust, and continuing those partnerships as improvements are made incrementally over time. The model has been repeated and successfully modified for these last two years from on-campus blood testing with procedural write-ups and data evaluation, to teaching school-aged children about mosquito prevention, to partnering with local government officials and having your projects adopted into their portfolio, and visiting individuals in their homes to discuss health and prevention.

To keep it brief, I’ve had an amazing experience here being able to lead and contribute to a wonderful and impactful project such as this. It has become increasingly clearer to me throughout this work that the values and skills programs like LMU teach are directly parallel with successes in various clinical settings. From the bedside to the laboratory to public health in the field, the lessons of how to effectively engage people and solve problems are critical. My time in laboratories before medical school, the daily grind of classwork here, and the projects I’ve been able to write about have all given me the space to try these skills on real situations—and hopefully that will make me the best clinician I can be after medical school is completed. Check out my “highlight reel” of partnerships, workshops, and active management in Zika prevention below.

Be sure to check back here next time, I’ll be writing from my hometown as I’ll explore ASCP’s Annual Meeting in Chicago, IL this coming September and report back on why it’s important to network and stay involved with our great professional community. Thanks for reading!

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Constantine E. Kanakis MSc, MLS (ASCP)CM graduated from Loyola University Chicago with a BS in Molecular Biology and Bioethics and then Rush University with an MS in Medical Laboratory Science. He is currently a medical student at the American University of the Caribbean and actively involved with local public health.