Pathology and Global Public Health

Recently, I interviewed for a subspecialty surgical pathology fellowship, and one of my interviewers posed a question to me: “What has pathology got to do with global health?” She asked me that question because  my resume highlights some of my global health-related activities and interests.

Pathology1 is the foundation upon which other specialties in medicine are situated. However, pathology as a specialty is seldom talked about or even referenced by other colleagues in other clinical specialties. One possible reason for this is that pathologists are often out of the perceptions of other clinicians.

That’s unfortunate, because the roles of pathologists in patient care cannot be overemphasized. Pathologists have a solid understanding of the pathophysiology of various diseases. We can identify when tissues are diseased or free from disease, and can also differentiate between various disease processes. We are also versed in the molecular and genetic basis of diseases. We also develop biomarkers to identify different disease processes. Through the assessment of various histopathologic, immunohistochemical analyses and morphologic features, we can also prognosticate various disease processes, a process that has become more effective with advances in molecular pathology. In addition, through our expertise, we serve as consultants to clinical teams to guide patient management.

However, beyond playing the above critical roles, pathologists can exert their influences by getting involved in public health and global health discussions, to influence policies that ultimately impact the outcome of patients. During the COVID-19 pandemic, the role of pathologists and laboratory professionals has become more critical in healthcare delivery.2 We play a huge role in the development of rapid and effective diagnostic assays, as well as influence the interpretation and delivery of timely test results.  In addition, through the conduct of autopsies on deceased patients, we have been able to describe some of the clinical and morphologic alterations associated with the SARS-CoV-2 (coronavirus).3

In spite of our important roles in the practice and delivery of medical services, it’s not common practice to have pathologists sit on major hospital boards, or participate in policy discussions that impact healthcare delivery. In addition, many low resource settings outside the United States still experience a shortage of effective laboratory services, with its attendant catastrophic effects on patient care.4 And even in the United States, the pathology workforce is gradually shrinking which could portend dire consequences for effective patient care delivery.5 In order to gain more traction to our specialty, it’s time for pathologists, to step out of our comfort zones and become more visible in the communities that we serve.

Pathology and laboratory services in many developing countries are currently suboptimal from a combination of scarcity of trained pathologists to sub-standard laboratory operations. Pathologists can step in to close this gap by developing collaborations that could foster partnerships in care delivery, training and research opportunities. I want to highly commend healthcare institutions that currently have dedicated pathology global health programs.6

This is a call to action for our specialty. If we really want to become more visible, relevant and attract some of the best talents to our specialty, then we should be ready to show that we bring so much more to the table than just peering into the microscope. The value of our pathology reports in the management of patients cannot be over emphasized. However, we must exert our relevance and expertise in healthcare discussions by stepping out into the communities that need us the most. A great place to start is getting involved with local public/global health-related work, including exploring opportunities, offered by the American Society for Clinical Pathology (ASCP) Center for Global Health.7

References

  1. https://www.rcpath.org/discover-pathology/what-is-pathology.html#:~:text=Doctors%20and%20scientists%20working%20in,patients%20with%20life%2Dthreatening%20conditions.
  2. https://www.uab.edu/news/health/item/11259-working-behind-the-scenes-uab-pathologists-play-key-role-in-fighting-coronavirus-pandemic
  3. Calabrese F, Pezzuto F, Fortarezza F, et al. Pulmonary pathology and COVID-19: lessons from autopsy. The experience of European Pulmonary Pathologists. Virchows Arch. 2020;477(3):359-372. doi:10.1007/s00428-020-02886-6
  4. Sayed S, Lukande R, Fleming KA. Providing Pathology Support in Low-Income Countries. J Glob Oncol. 2015;1(1):3-6. doi:10.1200/JGO.2015.000943
  5. Lundberg GD. How Many Pathologists Does the United States Need? JAMA Netw Open. 2019;2(5):e194308. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.4308
  6. https://www.massgeneral.org/pathology/global-health
  7. https://www.ascp.org/content/get-involved/center-for-global-health


-Evi Abada, MD, MS is a Resident Physician in anatomic and clinical pathology at the Wayne State University School of Medicine/Detroit Medical Center in Michigan. She earned her Masters of Science in International Health Policy and Management from Brandeis University in Massachusetts, and is a global health advocate. Dr. Abada has been appointed to serve on the ASCP’s Resident’s Council and was named one of ASCP’S 40 under Forty honorees for the year 2020. You can follow her on twitter @EviAbadaMD.

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